The Pronghorn Antelope, scientifically known as Antilocapra americana, is a artiodactyl mammal. Although its name implies an antelope, it is not an antelope and is known as other names also like prong buck, pronghorn or simply antelope. These species is unique in the world and its scientific names means ‘American antelope goat’. It is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, which existed 20 million years ago. This animal can be seen throughout the deserts of American southwest from Saskatchewan to Mexico and thee natural habitats are grasslands, bunch-grass and sagebrush areas of plains, and deserts. Majorly they are endemic to central and western North America.
The Pronghorn Antelope or Pronghorn has a horn that is laterally flattened and made up of bone, which is the outgrowth of frontal bone of skull. The coloration of upper body and outside of the legs is brownie. Lower portion of the body like lower jaw, chest, belly, inner legs and rump are usually white in color. In case of males the nose, neck patch and also the horns are black in color. The horn is the outgrowth of forehead bone and is a hollow structure. In case of females the horn is just about 3 or 4 inches whereas male horns may be up to 20 inches. Adults measure 1.3–1.5 m in length from nose to tail, standing 81–104 cm high at the shoulder, and weight is in between 36 to 70 kg. Females are comparatively heavier weighing 41–50 kg.
The pronghorn population, in the 1920s, was estimated to be about 13,000; due to hunting. After some restrictions in hunting and protection of habitat their numbers increased to an estimation of between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Habitat fragmentation and the blocking of traditional migration routes of Pronghorn have threatened their migration habitats. According to a migration study conducted by Lava Lake Institute for Science and Conservation and the Wildlife Conservation Society, this migration area was shrunk down to only 200 yards wide.