The Orangutans, scientifically known as Pongo Pigmaeus, is the only exclusive Asian genus belonging to the great ape. There are two subspecies of Orangutans viz. Bornean and Sumatran. These apes were once found abundant in nature but the present distribution is a fragment of its original range. There were predominantly found in most parts of Southeast Asia. Today, the orangutan is found only on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra in scattered populations. The places in these islands include Borneo (west, east and central Kalimantan), Malaysian Borneo (Sarawak and Sabah) and northern Sumatra. These apes prefer tropical montane, lowland dipterocarp, peat swamp and dense forests to spend their most of the times, the highest density being in the swamp forests.
Orangutans have a typical and unique appearance of their own. They are mostly covered with long reddish-brown hair, except Sumatran Orangutans which have a lighter colored coat. The body is large and bulky. They are built is very strong, having strong arms and neck. This species builds two nests a day; one for resting in the day time and a stronger nest for sleeping in the night. These nests are built 40-60 feet above the ground. To keep other males away they make a loud noise which travels miles away. Approximately 60% of their diet comprises of fruit. Other sources of food include rambutans, jackfruits, magosteens, mangoes, pandanus leaves, bark, insects, and lychees. On an average an orangutan lives around 35 to 40 years in the wild.
Out of the two subspecies, the Bornean Orangutans are endangered and Sumatran Orangutans are critically endangered. In general the Orangutans became extinct from many areas through hunting and deforestation. According to a study made by the Government of Indonesia, the total wild population of them counted 61,234. Today, there are a number of organizations which are working for the conservation and protection of this species.